Active Voice: Foot Orthoses and Neuromuscular Fatigue A New Insight?
By Luke A. Kelly Share
Viewpoints presented in SMB commentaries reflect opinions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect positions or policies of ACSM.
Luke A. Kelly is a sports podiatrist working at ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic & Sports Medicine Hospital in Qatar. His main research interests are in the field of neuromechanics, with specific focus on how neuromuscular function in the lower limb can be modified to reduce injury risk and improve athletic performance. He is also a Ph.D. candidate at the School of Human Movement Studies at the University of Queensland in Australia. This commentary presents Kelly’s views associated with the research article he and his colleagues published in the Dec. 2011 issue of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise® (MSSE).
Prolonged running can lead to various neural (reduced drive to the muscle) and muscular (reduced contractility) adjustments, impairing muscle force generating capacity and culminating in significant modifications to lower limb biomechanics. Emerging evidence suggests that some of these biomechanical changes, such as increased joint loading and increased vertical impact forces, may be important in the pathogenesis of overuse running injuries.
Foot orthoses are often prescribed by sports medicine practitioners as part of treatment and prevention of lower limb overuse injuries in runners. It has been proposed that one such benefit of foot orthoses is their ability to reduce foot pronation forces (inward roll of the rear-foot and collapse of the medial arch), thus reducing the mechanical demand imposed on muscles that help control this movement. Recent evidence shows that running with foot orthoses does reduce the activation of muscles, such as tibialis posterior and tibialis anterior, leading to recruitment patterns that reflect similar activity levels of people with more neutral foot posture (see Murley et al. 2010). However, these studies have only reported data from participants in a non-fatigued state. As recreational runners typically run at levels of moderate exertion for sustained periods, we thought it beneficial to examine the impact of such sustained running with foot orthoses on neuromuscular control as well as the nature of post-exercise fatigue. More
Policy Corner: Experts Divided on Cholesterol Screening for Children
Prevention is a key part of healthy lifestyles, and ACSM believes more should be done to prevent development of chronic diseases, especially among children. The following synopsis of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommendation comes from Kaiser Health News.
In late 2011, an expert panel at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) made the somewhat controversial recommendation that all children be screened for high cholesterol twice during their youth, once between ages 9 and 11 and once between ages 17 and 21. Proponents of this recommendation finds cholesterol testing sufficient for children who might be genetically predisposed to high cholesterol, or for those children who have abnormally high levels of LDL cholesterol from poor nutrition and low activity levels, which could cause being overweight or obese. Opposing clinicians, however, support low-cost prevention methods and question the health and safety consequences of screening all children. More
Headlines include recent stories in the media on sports medicine and exercise science topics and do not reflect ACSM statements, views or endorsements. Headlines are meant to inform members on what the public is reading and hearing about the field.
Exercise Prevents Dementia-Related Deaths According to Study
Huffington Post Share
We've long known that exercise is great preventive medicine, but we generally think of it in terms of curbing the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes or even cancer. Now, in one of the first studies of its kind, researchers have found that physical fitness also lowers the risk of dementia-related death.
While cardiovascular and cancer deaths are on the decline, deaths from dementia and Alzheimer's are on the rise. According to the study's authors, deaths related to dementia increased by 46 percent between 2002 and 2006 alone. And some of that may have to do with fitness: lead researcher Rui Liu -- a fellow at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences at the NIH -- and her team found that being out of shape more than doubled the risk of dying from a dementia-related cause. More
About One-Third of Patients Told By Doctors to Exercise
Los Angeles Times Share
If there is a magic "pill" in medicine, it is exercise. Working out regularly is associated with a broad spectrum of health improvements, including cardiac, bone, brain and lungs. But a new study shows that only one in three U.S. adults is asked about his or her exercise habits by a physician.
The data, published Thursday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, came from the National Health Interview Survey of 2010, which polls more than 21,800 adults. One in three who had seen a doctor in the past year said they had been advised to begin exercise or continue exercising, researchers found. Slightly more women were asked about exercise than men. More