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Does a fat cell know where it's been and where it's going?
Contributed by Lauren Sparks, PhD
In a recent invited review in the July issue of Obesity, Susan Fried, PhD, chronicles the rapid advances that have been made in our understanding of adipose tissue biology, particularly in the context of metabolism. This review focuses on the differences in body fat patterns of men and women (i.e. the "apple" vs. the "pear" shape) and asks the questions: How does a fat cell know whether to grow in the abdomen or in the leg? How does a fat cell know to get bigger in size rather than to increase in number?

The exciting new data from Dr. Fried has shown that fat cells in the abdomen and the buttocks have different DNA — regardless of whether these fat cells come from men or women — and different functions depending on whether they are in the upper or lower body. These fat cells appear to know where they were born and how they are supposed to behave.

Another important area of research that Dr. Fried's review highlights is how a fat cell decides whether to grow in size or in number. Fat cells are continuously replaced throughout our lifetime, and the average lifespan of a fat cell in a human is 10 years. The research in this area of the expandability of fat tissue is still a debate. Some studies have shown that overfeeding leads to increases in fat cell size in the mid-section, while others have suggested that it is more metabolically advantageous to increase the number — and not the size — of the fat cells. The authors conclude that the origin and composition of fat cells within different areas of the body and their subsequent link with overall metabolism is the future of this research area.

Read the full article here.
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ASSOCIATION NEWS


New data shifting attitudes on obesity treatment
Contributed by ConscienHealth
The response to new data on obesity treatment — published in the New England Journal of Medicine — gives us some flicker of hope that attitudes about obesity treatment are shifting. The publication is the 56-week pivotal safety and efficacy study of liraglutide for treating obesity.

TOS member Xavier Pi-Sunyer and colleagues found that most (63%) of the people taking liraglutide lost at least 5% of their initial body weight and that a third of them lost at least 10%. And in this study of 3,731 people with obesity, they found a safety profile largely consistent with the safety seen for liraglutide in treating diabetes.

But the real news here is in how this new data is being processed by people at arm's length from the study of obesity. The study was published along with an editorial commentary that was shockingly reasonable. Elias Siraj and Kevin Jon Williams, both respected endocrinologists from Temple University, conclude that while "liraglutide is no cure," this study provides some encouragement that "modest weight loss may now be easier to achieve."

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ABOM early bird registration deadline is July 13
TOS
Don't miss out on the opportunity to save $250. Complete your application to take the 2015 American Board of Obesity Medicine certification exam by the early bird deadline of Monday, July 13 and pay only $1,500.

Physicians attending ObesityWeek℠ 2015, Nov. 2-7 in Los Angeles, CA, may use the CME credits from the meeting, which includes an obesity medicine certification exam review course, to count toward ABOM’s required 60 CME credits, even though ObesityWeek takes place after ABOM's early bird deadline of July 13. Access the ABOM application portal here.

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Now available: ObesityWeek Exhibitor and Sponsorship prospectuses
TOS
Participating as an exhibitor and/or sponsor at ObesityWeek is your opportunity to reach more than 5000 obesity professionals with your products and services. This year in Los Angeles we look forward to joining our partner the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, as well as our multiple Level 2 and 3 partner organizations to host the 3rd annual event, Nov. 2 – 7.

Find out more about exhibitor opportunities and sponsorship opportunities.

ObesityWeek also offers opportunities for our 501© non-profit partners.

Registration is open! Don’t forget to register before the early bird deadline, August 21.

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Dietary fats differentially affect gut health and microbiome, and metabolic changes
Contributed by Rod Velliquette, PhD
The interaction between dietary fat, gut microbiome and metabolic health is a growing area of research interest. In the July issue of Obesity, Yan Y. Lam et al. examined the effect of different dietary fats (lard, sunflower oil or fish oil) on metabolic parameters, colonic barrier function, inflammation and microbiota in mice. Researchers fed mice high-fat diets emphasizing saturated (HFD-sat), n-6 (HFD-n6), or n-3 (HFD-n3) fatty acids. Another group of mice were maintained on the HFD-sat and received n-3- rich fish oil or resolvin D1 supplementation.

Both HFD-sat and HFD-n6 induced similar metabolic and inflammatory changes that were completely blunted in the HFD-n3 group. However, only HFD-sat increased gut permeability, which was positively correlated with hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria. This group of bacteria was a major determiner of the unique microbiota pattern associated with each diet. Supplementing HFD-sat with fish oil restored gut permeability and reduced inflammation, which was also demonstrated with systemically delivered n-3 metabolite resolvin D1.

This research adds to the current evidence that dietary fat influences gut microbiome population, gut permeability and inflammation with dietary fish oil n-3 providing protecting. Read the full article here.

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Get to know a TOS Fellow! Q&A with Lee-Ming Chuang, MD, PhD, FTOS
Contributed by TOS Early Career Committee

Dr. Lee-Ming Chuang, FTOS
It's time for another edition of the Q&A interviews with TOS Fellows! This is the perfect opportunity to get to know leaders in the obesity field a little better, and learn more about their personal lives outside of work. Here are some questions and answers from our interview with TOS Fellow Lee-Ming Chuang, MD, PhD, FTOS, professor of the Department of Internal Medicine at National Taiwan University Medical College.

Q: Please tell us about your current work and your professional developmental trajectory.
A: I am currently conducting molecular genetic studies related to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Through this, I am characterizing the function of the genes of interest in animal models. I am also working on bench work to study the molecular mechanism of the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders.

Q: What advice do you have for today's junior obesity researchers?
A: Choose the right theme that is also interesting to you. Think about the feasible approaches and expect the impact of the research outcomes.

Q: What aspects of obesity research are the most exciting to you right now?
A: I am interested in adipocyte biology and the browning of WAT.

Q: What are your favorite things to do when you're not at work?
A: I like regular exercise, brisk walking and taking nice photos.

Read the rest of the interview with Dr. Chuang here. These interviews are featured bi-monthly in the TOS eNews. Don't miss the next one on July 22!

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Call for applicants: Social Media Liaison
TOS
The Obesity Society sees social media as an integral way to share information about our activities and interests with members, partners, sponsors and individuals interested in the Society and our work.

In 2015/2016, we are looking to continue to grow our following on our current channels, and expand onto others. With the impending launch of our re-designed website (expected late-Summer 2015), we plan to launch an online social community specifically for obesity professionals.

As part of these efforts, we are pleased to announce an all-new opportunity for a TOS member to contribute as a Social Media Liaison. We are offering a quarterly stipend of $1,000 for the support of a qualified obesity professional to monitor and post to our social media channels, as well as contribute to our online strategy.

This new opportunity will provide a TOS member with direct engagement with TOS Communications Staff and the Public Affairs Committee, as well as our 35,000 social media followers around the globe. The deadline for applicants is July 17, 2015.

Find out more and apply for the position here.

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Free online CME: Diabetes Series Live
TOS
Watch top diabetes specialists — live and online — discuss the latest scientific research live via streaming video, participate in real-time Q&A and earn AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™.

Speakers:
  • Jerry Cavallerano, OD, PhD – Joslin Diabetes Center
  • Paolo Silva, MD – Beetham Eye Institute
  • Richard Beaser, MD – Harvard Medical School
Register online for Diabetic Retinopathy: Role of the Primary Care Provider in the Optimal Care Model – Strategies for Prevention and Risk Reduction, which takes place Wednesday, July 22, 12:00 pm ET.

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OBESITY IN THE NEWS


Body's early response to weight-loss efforts may predict future results
Healio
Identifying adults with overweight or obesity who do not respond to early weight-loss efforts may help improve their chances for weight-loss success in the long term, according to research in Obesity. In a study examining how adults with type 2 diabetes respond to a behavioral-based weight-loss intervention over time, researchers found that participants who lost the most body weight in the first 2 months saw the best long-term results after 8 years of follow-up.
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CDC: Many Americans trying to cut their salt intake
HealthDay News
Worried about links between high daily salt intake, high blood pressure and stroke, half of American adults questioned in a recent poll say they've tried to cut back on sodium. The survey of more than 180,000 people from 26 states, Puerto Rico and Washington, D.C., found — perhaps not surprisingly — that people already diagnosed with high blood pressure were more likely to shun the salt shaker.
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Study: Foodies could be the healthiest among us
Relaxnews via Yahoo News
We think of those who love fine food and trying new dishes as being indulgent and even gluttonous, yet a new study suggests the opposite: Foodies weigh less and could be in better health than the less adventurous among us. Hailing from the Cornell Food and Brand Lab in the US, the research team worked with survey responses from 502 women residing in the US of a mean age of 26.8 and whose average body mass index was 25.96.
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Obesity, weight loss impacts opioid receptor activity in men
Healio
Central opioid receptors that regulate reward and emotion in the brains of men with chronic obesity react to hunger and feeding differently than receptors in the brains of lean men, according to research in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. In a preliminary study of both lean men and men with obesity from the Investigational Weight Management Clinic at The University of Michigan, researchers found that men with obesity showed reduced central mu-opioid receptor activity when compared with lean men, and that MOR activity was partially recovered following a period of 15 percent weight loss.
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Surging food supply linked to global obesity epidemic
HealthDay News
The global obesity epidemic is linked to an oversupply of food available for human consumption, a new study suggests. There are enough extra calories available to explain the weight gain reported in many countries around the world, the researchers found. "Much of the increase in available calories over the decades has come from ultra-processed food products, which are highly palatable, relatively inexpensive and widely advertised, making overconsumption of calories very easy," study author Stefanie Vandevijvere, a senior research fellow in global health and food policy at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, said in a World Health Organization news release.
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Alcohol triggers brain's response to food aromas, increases caloric intake in women
Healio
Women who consume alcohol before a meal will eat more and have a different brain response to food aromas compared with women who do not drink alcohol, according to research in Obesity. In a randomized, single blind study using functional MRI to measure the blood oxygenation level dependent responses to food aromas in women who received an IV infusion of alcohol, researchers found that women ate more food at lunch after receiving alcohol compared with women who received an IV infusion of saline solution.
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The Obesity Society eNews
Mollie Turner, News Editor, The Obesity Society  
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Colby Horton, Vice President of Publishing, 469.420.2601
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Caitlin McNeely, Senior Editor, 469.420.2692   
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Disclaimer: eNews is a digest of the most important news selected for The Obesity Society from thousands of sources by the editors of MultiBriefs, an independent organization that also manages and sells advertising. The Obesity Society does not endorse any of the advertised products and services. Opinions expressed in the articles are those of the author and not of The Obesity Society.

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