ASCLS eNewsBytes
May. 20, 2014

'High-priority' chemicals that may cause breast cancer named
Medical News Today
An estimated 12.4 percent of women born in the U.S. today will develop breast cancer at some point during their lives. Past research has indicated that exposure to some chemicals may increase the risk of breast cancer. Now, a new study has identified 17 "high-priority" chemicals women should avoid in order to reduce such risk and demonstrates how their presence can be detected.More

CDC urges anti-HIV pill for people at high risk of infection
HealthDay News
People deemed to be at high risk for contracting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, should take anti-HIV medicines that seem to cut transmission risk, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced recently. If used consistently, this approach, called pre-exposure prophylaxis, has been shown to reduce HIV infection rates in prior studies by as much as 90 percent, the CDC noted. More

African camels show MERS virus is more widespread than believed
Bloomberg Businessweek
The deadly respiratory virus that has spread from Saudi Arabia around the world was found in camels in Nigeria, Tunisia and Ethiopia, showing the pathogen is more widespread than previously known. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or MERS-CoV, was found in almost all blood samples taken from 358 dromedary camels in Nigeria and 188 camels in Ethiopia, according to a study published online by the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.More

Cervical cancer screening: Physicians unconvinced on HPV DNA test
Medscape Medical News
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of a human papillomavirus test as a primary cervical cancer screening test in women as young as 25 years, yet physicians are unlikely to ditch the Pap test soon, experts say. If the cobas test is used as a primary screen, those who test positive for HPV 16 or HPV 18 are supposed to have a colposcopy, according to the FDA. If they test positive for 1 of the other high-risk HPV types, they are supposed to have a Pap test to determine whether they need colposcopy.More

Where infections fly under the radar
Scientific American
Patients can get anything from eye operations to biopsies at ambulatory care centers. As with any surgery, however, operations at these facilities do come with a finite risk of infection. Unfortunately, no one knows how significant the problem might be because outpatient surgical centers, unlike hospitals, are not required to track healthcare–associated infections.More

Dose of measles virus destroys woman's incurable cancer
Medical News Today
In what they describe as a proof of principle study, doctors in the U.S. were able to keep a woman with deadly multiple myeloma - an incurable bone marrow cancer — free of all signs of living cancer cells for over 6 months by giving her just one high dose of measles virus. Two patients received a single intravenous dose of measles virus that was engineered to kill myeloma plasma cells and not harm other cells. The team, from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, says both patients responded to the treatment, showing reduced bone marrow cancer and levels of myeloma protein.More

Sepsis to blame for up to half of hospital deaths; early detection is key
Medical Daily
Researchers analyzed overnight hospitalization records of nearly seven million patients who were diagnosed with sepsis and found the blood infection was responsible for one out of every two to three deaths. The findings, which were published in JAMA, will be presented at the American Thoracic Society International Conference.More

Study: Obesity may raise breast cancer death risk for some women
HealthDay News
A new study suggests that obesity may raise the risk of dying from early stage breast cancer for some women. Obese women who had not yet gone through menopause and who had a form of the disease known as estrogen receptor-positive were more likely than others to die of the disease, according to an analysis of the results of 70 clinical trials.More

Infectious disease vaccines in the omics era
Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News
Advances in sequencing technologies and the increasing availability of microbial genomes catalyzed one of the great strides in vaccinology. This consisted in the shift from conventional vaccines, which are based on inactivated or killed microorganisms or subunit vaccines, to more rationally designed approaches. One of these advances consisted in the development of reverse vaccinology, a genome-based approach in which scanning the entire genome of a pathogen allowed, without the need to grow the microorganism, the identification of genes encoding proteins with certain desirable characteristics, which were then expressed and tested experimentally for their ability to confer protection in vivo.More

CT texture as new imaging biomarker in melanoma
Medscape Medical News
CT texture analysis can predict the survival of patients with metastatic melanoma who are receiving antiangiogenic therapy, a new study shows. "We're trying to find ways to predict how someone is going to do with metastatic melanoma early in their therapy," said Andrew D. Smith, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor of nuclear medicine and body imaging at the University of Mississippi in Jackson. More

'High-priority' chemicals that may cause breast cancer named
Medical News Today
An estimated 12.4 percent of women born in the U.S. today will develop breast cancer at some point during their lives. Now, a new study has identified 17 "high-priority" chemicals women should avoid in order to reduce increased risk of breast cancer and demonstrates how their presence can be detected.More

Is overprescribing really to blame for antibiotic resistance?
By Lauren Swan
The World Health Organization recently released a report regarding antimicrobial resistance and how it's being found in every part of the world. According to the WHO, the cause of this resistance is overuse and abuse of antibiotic medications. Is overprescribing really at fault? Or are there other factors to consider?More

WHO: Spreading polio a global health emergency
NBC News
The spread of polio is an international health emergency that requires "extraordinary measures" to control it, the World Health Organization said. Three countries are spreading the virus to the rest of the world and need to act immediately to stop it, by vaccinating the population and vaccinating travelers, WHO said.More

Intervention reduces MDROs and infections in nursing homes
Medscape Medical News
An intervention aimed at reducing multidrug resistant organism colonization and infection in nursing homes proved successful in a randomized trial conducted in a dozen facilities in Michigan. Nursing home residents are at high risk for MDROs and infections, especially the 10 percent to 15 percent with urinary catheters and the 5 percent to 7 percent with feeding tubes. More

Life expectancy up worldwide; Japanese women live longest
USA Today
People around the world continue to live longer, and in some poor countries the gains have been dramatic, the World Health Organization says in an annual report released recently. The average girl born in 2012 can expect to reach 73 and the average boy can expect to reach 68. That gives them an average of six years more than children born in 1990, WHO says. More