ASCLS eNewsBytes
Jun. 9, 2015

Discovery of how bacteria survive antibiotics may improve treatment of infectious diseases
Cell Press via Infection Control Today
A study published June 4 in Molecular Cell reveals that these so-called persisters form in response to adverse conditions through the action of a molecule called Obg, which plays an important role in all major cellular processes in multiple bacterial species. By revealing a shared genetic mechanism underlying bacterial persistence, the study paves the way for novel diagnostic tools and more effective treatment strategies for a range of bacterial infections.More

Study: Immunity enzyme defends against tuberculosis infection
UT Southwestern Medical Center via Infection Control Today
A study by researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center has identified how an enzyme involved in protecting the body from pathogens senses Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterial pathogen that infects millions of people worldwide and causes about 1.5 million deaths annually. The new finding has potential implications for the development of immunity-based therapies to treat tuberculosis, which typically takes months to eradicate and has become increasingly resistant to antibiotics.More

Preliminary incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food
Medscape
Foodborne illnesses represent a substantial, yet largely preventable, health burden in the United States. In 10 U.S. geographic areas, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary data and describes changes in incidence.More

1st-in-man clinical trial for Hunter syndrome underway at Emory
Health Canal
A first-in-man clinical trial, testing a newly developed drug for a rare genetic condition called Hunter syndrome is underway at Emory University. Now, Emory researchers are testing idursulfase to create a new method of delivery that will include the brain. This is the first time this medication combination, called AGT-182, has been tested in a human.More

1st steps taken for regenerating whole limb
Medical News Today
The first steps toward developing "bioartificial" replacement limbs that are suitable for transplantation have reportedly been taken by a team at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The researchers stripped away tissue from the rats' forelimbs, but preserved the primary vasculature and nerve matrix.More

Muscle biopsy and clinical and laboratory features neuromuscular disease
Medscape
Muscle biopsy plays an integral role in evaluation of the patient with neuromuscular disease. With occasional exceptions, it is an essential element in the assessment of a patient with suspected myopathy. In addition, muscle biopsy is also sometimes indicated for the diagnosis of various systemic disorders and the evaluation of suspected neuropathic disease, particularly for the purpose of distinguishing between a neurogenic disorder with an atypical presentation and a primary myopathic disorder.More

Mayo Clinic researchers determine that use of high-definition optical technology enables physicians to identify precancerous polyps immediately
DARK Daily
High-definition optical technology is reaching the point where gastroenterologists are able to identify precancerous polyps with 96 percent accuracy during colonoscopies, according to a recent study conducted at the Mayo Clinic. Pathologists will want to pay close attention to the published findings of this study. That's because gastroenterological biopsies represent a significant proportion of specimens referred to anatomic pathologists.More

Shingles vaccine appears to cut odds of long-term pain
HealthDay News
Even when shingles vaccination does not prevent the disease, it reduces the risk of long-term pain that can occur as a complication of the condition, according to a new study. Although the U.S. Advisory Council on Immunization Practices recommends shingles vaccination for people 60 and older, vaccination rates remain low, the researchers say.More

Study: Early HIV treatment halves risk of serious complications
Health Canal
An international study led by the University of New South Wales's Kirby Institute has shown immediate treatment for people diagnosed with HIV can halve their risk of HIV-related serious disease or death. The study was terminated ahead of schedule after interim results provided conclusive evidence that immediate treatment with anti-retroviral therapy is clinically superior compared to deferred treatment.More