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Genetic screening for endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer
redOrbit
A new study from the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and Magee-Womens Research Institute (MWRI) reveals that genetic screening could someday help clinicians to know which women are most at risk. “A small subset of women with endometriosis go on to develop ovarian cancer, but doctors have no clinical way to predict which women,” said Anda Vlad, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences at MWRI. “If further studies show that the genetic pathway we uncovered is indicative of future cancer development, then doctors will know to more closely monitor certain women and perhaps take active preventative measures, such as immune therapy.”
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Biomarkers identified that predict residual disease in ovarian cancer
The Oncology Report
High levels of FABP4 and ADH1B gene expression in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer are associated with significantly increased risk of residual disease after primary debulking surgery, according to an analysis of two large-scale, publicly available genomic data sets. The findings could aid in the development of an algorithm for triaging patients to neoadjuvant approaches versus primary debulking, said Dr. Anil K. Sood at the annual meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.
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Vaginal cuff brachytherapy plus chemotherapy no better than pelvic radiation in early endometrial cancer
Ob.Gyn.News
Vaginal cuff brachytherapy followed by paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy was not superior to pelvic radiation therapy in randomized phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group trial 249 involving women with high-intermediate-risk, early stage endometrial cancer. The 24-month recurrence-free survival was 82 percent and 84 percent in 301 women assigned to receive pelvic radiation therapy (PXRT) and 300 women assigned to receive vaginal cuff brachytherapy followed by paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy (VCB/C) for a hazard ratio of 0.97. Survival at 24 months was 93% in the PXRT group and 92 percent in the VCB/C group (hazard ratio, 1.28), Dr. D. Scott McMeekin reported during a late-breaking abstract session at the annual meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.
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Ascites predicts bevacizumab benefit in advanced ovarian cancer
The Oncology Report
Malignant ascites independently predicts poor prognosis among women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer, and thus may predict the likelihood of deriving long-term benefit from bevacizumab treatment, an investigator reported at the annual meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology. Of 1,151 completely resected patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer who were included in the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 218 study comparing standard cytotoxic chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab, 914 (79 percent) had ascites, and those patients were more likely than patients without ascites to have poor performance status, high-grade serous histology, higher baseline CA 125, and suboptimal cytoreduction, Dr. James Stuart Ferriss of Temple University, Philadelphia, reported.
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OVARIAN CANCER


International consortium discovers 2 genes that modulate risk of breast and ovarian cancer
redOrbit
In the specific case of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, malfunctions may be caused by thousands of different mutations. However, the effects of these mutations can depend on other DNA variants found in other genes. These DNA variants may be caused by a single change in a chemical component from the 3 billion that make up the human genome. These single changes, known as SNPs (Single-nucleotide polymorphisms), do not inactivate genes and nor are they pathological in and of themselves, but they can play an important role when high-risk mutations already exist.
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Scaffolding protein promotes growth and metastases of epithelial ovarian cancer
Medical Xpress
Researchers from Fox Chase Cancer Center have shown that NEDD9, a scaffolding protein responsible for regulating signaling pathways in the cell, promotes the growth and spread of epithelial ovarian cancer. The new data suggests the protein activates known oncogenic signaling pathways in cancer cells, encouraging metastases. "NEDD9 expression is usually associated with metastasis," says lead author Rashid Gabbasov. "We've shown in two mouse models that expression of the protein probably plays an important role both in the initial development of ovarian cancer and tumor dissemination."
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ENDOMETRIAL CANCER


In elderly, robotic surgery for endometrial cancer linked with lower morbidity
2 minute medicine
In a study, published in the April issue of Gynecologic Oncology, researchers found that in elderly women undergoing surgery for endometrial cancer staging, laparoscopic robotic surgery was associated with less perioperative morbidity than laparotomy. Further, there was no difference in 2-year disease-free survival. By selecting cohorts from two different time periods, where surgeries were completed either primarily with laparotomy or primarily with robotic laparoscopy, researchers were able to mitigate the effects of selection bias, which are often a limitation in cohort studies that compare different surgical approaches. Future studies might randomize by co-morbidities to compare outcomes in older women undergoing straight-stick laparoscopy with those undergoing robotic laparoscopy in a randomized, controlled design.
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BREAST CANCER


Tissue testing during breast cancer lumpectomies
Medical Xpress
Unique laboratory testing during breast cancer lumpectomies to make sure surgeons remove all cancerous tissue spares patients the need for a repeat lumpectomy in roughly 96 percent of cases at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, a success rate much higher than the rate nationally, a Mayo study shows. During the years reviewed, 13.2 percent of breast cancer lumpectomy patients nationally had to return to the operating room within a month of their initial surgery, compared to 3.6 percent at Mayo in Rochester, which uses a technique called frozen section analysis to test excised tissue for cancer while patients are still on the operating table.
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Women's Cancer News
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